Most shrines and temple sell fortunes called "おみくじ(Omikuji)".
The fortunes are written on pieces of long, narrow paper.
First they give you your overall fortune, which are roughly divided into several levels raging from excellent luck to great misfortune.
Then they give you advice about specific areas in your life, such as your studies, business matters, marriage prospects, health and so on.
After you finish reading them, it is customary to fold and tie them onto a branch of a tree or other set locations in the temple or shrine grounds.